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CIPS L4M2 Exam Syllabus Topics:

Topic 1
  • Understand how to devise a business case for requirements to be sourced from external suppliers
  • Producing estimated costs and budgets
Topic 2
  • Understand the use of specifications in procurement and supply
  • Analyse the different types of markets utilised by procurement and supply
Topic 3
  • Monitor specification creation by colleagues and other internal stakeholders
  • Analyse how business needs influence procurement decisions
Topic 4
  • Output or outcome, statement of work based specifications
  • Types of market data that can provide information on costs and prices
Topic 5
  • Provide guidance to internal stakeholders on implementation
  • Implications of the business needs on the types of purchase
Topic 6
  • Identify opportunities to regulate short and longer term specifications
  • Procurement’s role in developing a business case
Topic 7
  • Approaches to total costs of ownership
  • whole life cycle costing
  • Interpret financial budgets for the control of purchases
Topic 8
  • Identify sections of specifications for through life contracts
  • Identify how costs and prices can be estimated for procurement activities

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CIPS Defining Business Needs Sample Questions (Q50-Q55):

What will be the result of retaliation between business rivals in an industry?

  • A. Lower profit
  • B. Higher exit barrier
  • C. Greater bargaining power of suppliers
  • D. More new entrants

Answer: A

Industry rivalry-or rivalry among existing firms-is one of Porter's five forces used to deter-mine the intensity of competition in an industry. Other factors in this competitive analysis are:
- Barriers to entry
- Bargaining power of buyers
- Bargaining power of suppliers
- Threat of substitutes
Industry rivalry usually takes the form of jockeying for position using various tactics (for example, price competition, advertising battles, product introductions). This rivalry tends to increase in intensity when companies either feel competitive pressure or see an opportunity to improve their position.
In most industries, one company's competitive moves will have a noticeable impact on the competition, who will then retaliate to counter those efforts. Companies are mutually dependent, so the pattern of action and reaction may harm all companies and the industry.
Some types of competition (for example, price competition) are very unstable and negatively influence industry profitability. Other tactics (for example, advertising battles) may positively influence the industry, as they increase demand or enhance product differentiation.
Porter, M. (1998). Competitive Strategy. New York: Free Press. pp. 17-23.
CIPS study guide page 86-87
LO 2, AC 2.2

Ymira is asked to develop the specification for water purifier which will be used at the company headquarter. She believes that the specification can be drafted based on the information available on the Internet, such as blog posts, comparison websites, how-to websites, life hacks, etc. Which of the following traits will make the information more useful?

  • A. Written by inexperienced author
  • B. Promotional information
  • C. Trustworthy sources
  • D. Subjectivity
  • E. Objectivity

Answer: C,E

Internet is a great source of information, however, information from the Internet needs to be tested for accuracy and reliability. To check the information from the Internet, a buyer can use the criteria with acronym SAMOA:
Source (of the information)
Audience (intended as the recipient of the information)
Methodology (used to collect and analyse the data)
Objectivity (of the information - there should be no bias)
LO 3, AC 3.1

Which of the following are the focuses of ISO 14001:2015?

  • A. 2 and 3 only
  • B. 1. Life cycle
    2. Process
    3. Capacity
    4. Information security
    2 and 4 only
  • C. 1 and 2 only
  • D. 3 and 4 only

Answer: C

ISO 14001:2015 specifies the requirements for an environmental management system that an or-ganization can use to enhance its environmental performance. ISO 14001:2015 is intended for use by an organization seeking to manage its environmental responsibilities in a systematic manner that contributes to the environmental pillar of sustainability.
ISO 14001:2015 helps an organization achieve the intended outcomes of its environmental man-agement system, which provide value for the environment, the organization itself and interested parties. Consistent with the organization's environmental policy, the intended outcomes of an environmental management system include:
* enhancement of environmental performance;
* fulfilment of compliance obligations;
* achievement of environmental objectives.
ISO 14001:2015 is applicable to any organization, regardless of size, type and nature, and applies to the environmental aspects of its activities, products and services that the organization determines it can either control or influence considering a life cycle perspective. ISO 14001:2015 does not state specific environmental performance criteria.
ISO 14001:2015 can be used in whole or in part to systematically improve environmental manage-ment. Claims of conformity to ISO 14001:2015, however, are not acceptable unless all its require-ments are incorporated into an organization's environmental management system and fulfilled without exclusion.
In conclusion, ISO 14001:2015 focuses on: management system (including roles, leadership and processes) and the life cycle of product or service. Life cycle is defined as "consecutive and inter-linked stages of a product (or service) system, from raw material acquisition or generation from natural resources to final disposal. [...] The life cycle stages include acquisition of raw materials, design, production, transportation/ delivery, use, end-of-life treatment and final disposal." The answer is process and life cycle.
- ISO 14001:2015 Environmental management systems - Requirements with guidance for use LO 3, AC 3.1

Buyers are more powerful than the supplier when they are purchasing from monopoly market. Is this statement true?

  • A. False, the buyer will be unable to track and manage supplier's performance
  • B. True, suppliers in monopoly market produce homogenous products
  • C. False, buyer will lack negotiating power on cost if the supplier has a monopoly in the market
  • D. True, in monopoly market, buyer's switching costs from the incumbent supplier to an-other are relatively low

Answer: C

A monopoly is a market with a single seller (called the monopolist) but with many buyers. In this market, the bargaining power of supplier is higher than of buyer since the supplier is the only seller.
- CIPS study guide page 88-92
- Bargaining Power of Suppliers - Factors that Give Suppliers Power (corporatefinanceinsti-tute.com)
- Monopoly - Understanding How Monopolies Impact Markets (corporatefinanceinstitute.com) LO 2, AC 2.2

Which of the following activities are considered as secondary activities of an organization? Select TWO that apply

  • A. Component fabrication
  • B. Service response
  • C. Information system development
  • D. Training
  • E. Shipping

Answer: C,D

According to Porter's value chain, secondary activities consist of firm infrastructure, human re-source management, technology development and procurement.
Training is an example of human resource development, while information system is a part of firm infrastructure.
LO 2, AC 2.1


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